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When considering the numerous tools and techniques the PMBOK proposes for administering the 47 project processes one often focusses attention on specific tools and techniques such as; decomposition; or earned value management, for example.  After all, many such tools and techniques proposed by the PMBOK are unfamiliar to the extent that these tools and techniques are not frequently encountered outside of project management environments. Some of these ‘less familiar’ tools and techniques are used on more than one of the 47 project processes. The more frequently they are utilized the more familiar they become. 

However, of all the tools and techniques proposed within the PMBOK, none is more frequently utilized than expert judgment.  Whereas project management is an expertise to be developed; a significant element of that expertise resides in the perspicacious utilization of other people’s expertise.  An effective project manager must understand why, when and how to utilize the expertise of other people. Consequently a project manager is also an architect of mutually beneficial and sustainable relationships.

Expert judgment is a tool and technique of 28 of the 47 PMBOK processes;  it is the first tool and technique proposed by the PMBOK for administering each of the 6 integration management processes.  Find below a brief description of how expert judgment is utilized in 28 of the 47 PMBOK project processes.

 

4.1.2.1
Develop Project Charter

  • Often used to assess the inputs to the project charter.
  • Applied to all technical and management details during this process.
  • Expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized;
    • Knowledge;
    • Training.
  • Available from many sources including;
    • Other units within the org;
    • Consultants;
    • Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors;
    • Professional & technical associations;
    • Industry groups;
    • Subject matter experts (SME), and;
    • Project Management Office (PMO.)

 

4.2.2.1
Develop Project Management Plan

When developing the project management plan, expert judgment is utilized to;

  • TAILOR the process to meet the project needs;
  • Develop technical and management details to be included in the project management plan;
  • Determine resources and skill levels needed to perform project work;
  • Define the level of CONFIGURATION management to apply on the project;
  • Determine which project documents will be subject to formal change control process;
  • Prioritize work on project to ensure the project resources are allocated to;
    • The appropriate work.
    • At the appropriate time.

 

4.3.2.1
Direct and Manage Project Work

Expert Judgment is used to assess the INPUTS needed to;

  • Direct;
  • Manage / Execute;

Execution of the project management plan.

  • Such expertise & judgment;
    • Are applied to all technical & management details during process.
  • This expertise is provided by;
    • The project manager;
    • The project management team.
  • Using specialized;
    •  Knowledge;
    •  Training.
  • Additional expertise is available from many sources, including;
    • Other units within the organization;
    • Consultants & other SMEs (internal & external ;)
    • Stakeholders, including customers, suppliers, or sponsors; and;
    • Professional & technical associations.

 

4.4.2.1
Monitor and Control Project Work

Expert judgment is used by the Project management TEAM to interpret;

  • The info provided by the monitor & control PROCESSES.

The PM (in collaboration with the team ;)

  • Determines the actions required to ensure that;
    • Project performance matches expectations.

 

4.5.2.1
Perform Integrated Change Control

Expert judgment can be provided by 2 groups in change control meetings;

  • The Project Management Team;
  • Stakeholders.

Judgment & expertise are applied to;

  • Any technical & management details during this process;
  • May be provided by various sources;
    • Consultants;
    • Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors;
    • Professional & technical associations;
    • Industry groups
    • Subject matter experts (SMEs;)
    • PMO (project management office.)

 

4.5.2.1
Close Project or Phase

Expert judgment used to determine;

  • Lessons learned.

 

5.1.2.1
Plan Scope Management

Expert Judgment refers to input received from knowledgeable & experienced parties.

  • Expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized;
    • Education;
    • Knowledge;
    • Skill;
    • Experience;
    • Training;
  • In developing scope management plans.

 

5.3.2.1
Define Scope

Expert Judgment often used to analyze the info needed to develop the project scope statement.

  • Such judgment & expertise is applied to any technical detail.
  • Such expertise is provided by any individual or groups with specialized;
    • Knowledge;
    • Training.

The expertise is available from many sources including but not limited to;

  • Other units within the organization;
  • Consultants;
  • Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors;
  • Professional & technical associations;
  • Industry groups;
  • Subject matter experts.

 

5.4.2.2
Create WBS

Expert Judgment is useful to;

  • Analyze info needed to decompose for an effective WBS;
  • For technical scope details and to reconcile different opinions;

Any person or group with relevant experience, knowledge, training.

  • Predefined templates also can be used as expert judgment.
  • PM collaborates with project team to determine final WBS.

 

6.1.2.1
Plan Schedule Management

Expert Judgment guided by historical information;

  • Provides valuable insight about;
    • The environment;
    • Information from similar projects.
  • Expert judgment can also suggest;
    • Whether to combine methods;
    • How to reconcile differences between them.

Expert judgment based upon expertise in an;

  • Application area;
  • Discipline, Industry, etc.
    • As appropriate for the activity being performed.
    • Should be used in developing the schedule management plan.

 

6.2.2.3
Define Activities

Expert Judgment utilized by project team members or other experts.

  • Who are experienced and skilled in developing;
    • Detailed project scope statements;
    • The WBS & project schedules;
  • Can provide expertise in defining activities.

 

 

6.4.2.1
Estimate Activity Resources

Expert Judgment often required to assess the resource-related inputs to this process.

  • Any group or person with specialized knowledge in;
    • Resource planning;
    • Estimating;
  • Can provide such expertise.

 

6.5.2.1
Estimate Activity Durations

Expert Judgment guided by historical information, can provide;

  • Duration estimate information;
  • Recommended maximum activity durations from similar projects.

Expert judgment can also be used to determine;

  • Whether to combine methods of estimating;
  • How to reconcile differences between them.

 

7.1.2.1
Plan Cost Management

Expert Judgment guided by historical info, provides valuable insight about;

  • The environment;
  • The information;
    • From Similar prior projects.
  • Can suggest whether to combine methods;
    • And how to reconcile differences between them.

Expert Judgment based upon expertise in an;

  • Application area;
  • Knowledge area;
  • Discipline;
  • Industry;

As appropriate for activity being done.

  • Should be used in developing the cost management plan.

 

7.2.2.1
Estimate Costs

Expert Judgment guided by historical info, provides valuable insight about;

  • The environment;
  • The information;
    • From Similar prior projects.
  • Can suggest whether to combine methods;
    • And how to reconcile differences between them.

 

7.3.2.3
Determine Budget

Expert Judgment guided by experience in an;

  • Application area;
  • Knowledge area;
  • Discipline;
  • Industry;
  • Similar Project;

Aids in determining the budget.

Can be provided by any group or person with specialized;

  • Education;
  • Knowledge;
  • Skill;
  • Experience;
  • Training.

Available from many sources including;

  • Other units within the performing organization;
  • Consultants;
  • Stakeholders including customers;
  • Professional & technical associations;
  • Industry groups.

 

11.1.2.2
Plan Risk Management

To ensure a comprehensive establishment of the RM plan;

  • Judgment & expertise should be considered;

From groups or individuals with specialized;

  • Training or knowledge on the subject area;
    • Senior Management;
    • Project Stakeholders;
    • Project Managers with experience in same area;
      • Directly or via lessons learned.
    • SMEs in business or project area;
    • Professional & technical associations.

 

11.2.2.7
Identify Risks

Risks may be identified directly by experts;

  • With relevant experience / similar projects or business.

Experts should be identified by the project manager and;

  • Invited to consider all aspects of the project;
  • Suggest possible risks based on;
    • Previous experience;
    • Areas of expertise.

The potential bias of experts should be taken into account in this process.

 

11.3.2.6
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

Expert Judgment is required to assess the probability & impact of each risk;

  • To determine location in risk matrix.

Experts are generally people having;

  • Experience with similar & recent projects.

Gathering expert judgment can be done with;

  • Facilitation workshops or interviews.

The potential bias of experts should be taken into account in this process.

 

11.4.2.3
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

Expert Judgment is conducted ideally using experts with relevant recent experience;

  • Required to identify potential cost & schedule impacts;
  • To evaluate probability;
  • To define probability distributions into the tools;
  • Data interpretation; tool strengths and weaknesses.

Experts may determine when;

  • A specific tool may or may not be appropriate;
  • Given the organization's capabilities & culture.

 

11.5.2.4
Plan Risk Responses

Expert Judgment pertains to one specific, defined risk.

One seeks input from knowledgeable parties;

  • About actions to be taken;
  • Someone who knows what to do because; establishing a  response requires;
    • Specialized education;
    • Knowledge;
    • Skill;
    • Experience;
    • Training

 

9.1.2.4
Plan HR Management

When developing the HR management plan, expert judgment is used to;

  • List preliminary requirements for the required skills;
  • Assess roles required for project, based on standardized roles in organization;
  • Determine preliminary effort level and the number of resources needed for objectives;
  • Guidance on lead time required; lessons learned and market conditions;
  • Identify risks with staff acquisition, retention & release plans;
  • Identify & recommend programs for compliance with applicable government & union contracts.

 

10.3.2.2
Control Communications

Expert judgment is often relied upon by the project team to assess;

  • The impact of project Communications;
  • Need for action or intervention;
  • Actions that should be taken;
  • Responsibility for taking such actions;
  • Timeframe for taking action.

Expert judgment: may need to be applied; technical/management details;

  • May be provided by any group/person with special training such as;
    • Other units within the organization;
    • Consultants;
    • Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors;
    • Professional & technical associations;
    • Industry groups;
    • PMO (project management office.)

The PM, in collaboration with project team then determines;

  • Actions required to ensure that;
    • Right message is communicated;
    • To the right audience;
    • At the right time

 

12.1.2.2
Plan Procurement Management

Expert judgment is often used to assess the;

  • Inputs to the process;
  • Outputs from the process.

Expert judgment is also used in purchasing decisions;

  • Judgment to evaluate seller proposals;
    • Develop or modify criteria used to evaluate.

Expert Judgment also provided by legal staff to assist with

  • Unique issues, terms and conditions.

This judgment (including business & technical expertise) can be applied to;

  • Technical details of the acquired products, services & results;
  • Various aspects of the procurement management process.

 

12.2.2.4
Conduct Procurements

Experts may be used in evaluating seller proposals;

  • A multi discipline review team can be assembled;
  • This team has expertise in each area covered in;
    • Procurement documents;
    • Proposed contract

This can include expertise in functional disciplines such as;

  • Contracting;
  • Legal;
  • Finance;
  • Accounting;
  • Engineering;
  • Design;
  • Research;
  • Development;
  • Sales ;
  • Manufacturing

 

13.1.2.2
Identify Stakeholders

Expert judgment ensures comprehensive identification and listing of stakeholders;

  • Groups or persons with special training or SMEs;
  • Performed via individual consultations or panel formats with;
    • Senior management;
    • Other units within the organization;
    • Already identified key stakeholders;
    • PMs from same project area / lessons learned;
    • SMEs in the business or project area;
    • Industry groups and consultants;
    • Professional & technical associations, regulatory bodies and NGOs.

 

13.4.2.2
Control Stakeholder Engagement

Expert judgment ensures comprehensive;

  • Identification and listing of NEW stakeholders;
  • Reassessment of current stakeholders can also be performed.

Groups or persons with special training such as SMEs;

  • Conducted via individual consultations or panel formats with;
    • Senior management;
    • Other units within the organization;
    • Already identified key stakeholders;
    • Project managers from same project area / lessons learned;
    • SMEs in the business or project area;
    • Industry groups and consultants;
    • Professional & technical associations, regulatory bodies and NGOs.

 

13.2.2.1
Plan Stakeholder Management

Project manager applies expert judgment based on project objectives.

Decide on the level of engagement required from each stakeholder at each project stage.

  • Example: Senior Stakeholders at beginning of project to clear obstacles.
  • Later these senior stakeholders take a supportive rather than leading role.

Expert judgment used to create the stakeholder management plan;

  • Groups or persons with;
    • Special training; SMEs;
    • Insight into relationships within the organization.

Individual consultations or panel formats with;

  • Senior management;
  • Project team members;
  • Other units within the organization;
  • Already identified key stakeholders;
  • PMs from same project area / lessons learned;
  • SMEs in the business or project area;
  • Industry groups and consultants;
  • Professional & technical associations, regulatory bodies and NGOs.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
             
             
   
   
   
   
   
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expert judgment Tools and Techniques 1 Develop Project Charter Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Develop Project Management Plan Plan management Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Close Project or Phase Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Scope Management Plan management Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Create WBS Plan execution Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Schedule Management Plan management Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Cost Management Plan management Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Risk Management Plan management Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 7 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 6 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Plan Risk Responses Plan execution Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
Tools and Techniques 4 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
Tools and Techniques 2 Identify Stakeholders Initiate and Close Stakeholder Managment  
Tools and Techniques 2 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Stakeholder Management Plan management Stakeholder Managment  
             
   
   
   
   
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